# Tangent Pile Wall - Braced Excavation Design Example (SI Units)

## Tangent Pile Wall with Rakers Supporting a 6.1m Excavation

In this example we will design a 6.1m excavation, supported by a reinforced concrete tangent pile wall with rakers. The model is created and analyzed with DeepEX - Shoring Design Software.

### A. Project Description

In this example we will design a tangent pile wall with rakers, supporting a 6.1 m deep excavation. The Figure below presents the project model. Tables 1 and 2 present the soil properties and the stratigraphy respectively. Table 3 presents the external loads. Tables 4 and 5 present the wall and support properties respectively. The general ground surface is at El. 0m and the general water table is at El. -11m.

Figure: Project model.

Table 1: Soil properties.

 Soil Layer Soil Type Design parameter φ’ (deg) C’/Su (kPa) γ (kN/m3) γdry (kN/m3) ELOAD (kPa) ERELOAD (kPa) F Fill 25 0 19 19 15000 45000 C Clay 29 65 18.5 18.5 20000 60000 S1 Sand 32 0 20.5 20.5 30000 90000 S2 Sand 34 5 21 21 45000 90000

Table 2: Stratigraphy.

 Soil Layer Elevation (m) OCR Ko F -0 1 0.577 C -2 1 0.515 S1 -8 1 0.47 S2 -13 1 0.441

Table 4: Wall parameters.

 Pile width 0.5 m Reinf. Steel S500 Concrete C20/25 Longitudinal reinforcement 6 D18 Shear reinforcement D8 / 10cm Wall depth 11 m

Table 5: Support parameters.

 Raker 1 Raker elevation on wall -2 m Raker spacing 5 m Angle 25 deg Free length 10 m Support section CHS 114.3x8

### B. Modeling with DeepEX

The model will be created using the DeepEX Model Wizard:

• Define Analysis Methods:

Figure: Analysis Methods in DeepEX Wizard.

In this dialog, we choose to apply Limit Equilibrium Analysis method to our model. For the classical earth pressures in design stages with multiple support levels we define FHWA apparent pressures and for the beam analysis we choose CALTRANS method.

• Define project type and dimensions

Figure: Project Type and Dimensions in DeepEX Wizard.

In this dialog we select the project type (in this case we select the option to create an excavation with rakers). Next, we define the project dimensions (final excavation depth, walls depth, excavation width, top of the wall elevation and water table). Finally, we define the support properties (in this case raker spacing, installation angle and structural section). The software will use the same properties (spacing, structural sections etc) for all created supports. Later we can access each support on the model area (double-click on the support) and edit the specific support properties.

• Define soil types and stratigraphy

Figure: Soil Properties and Soil Layers in DeepEX Wizard.

Figure: Soil Properties and Soil Layers dialogs in DeepEX.

In these dialogs we can define the required soil types and the properties for each created soil, as well as, the model stratigraphy by defining the top of the soil layer elevation and the soil type in each layer.

• Define wall type and wall section properties

Figure: Wall types in DeepEX Wizard.

In these dialogs we select the wall section type (in this case reinforced concrete tangent piles), the wall reinforcement, the wall spacing and the concrete – steel materials.

• Define Stages – Support Elevations

Figure: Support Elevations in DeepEX Wizard.

In this dialog, we define the depth from the surface or each support level, as well as, the depth below each support level where we wish to excavate in the stages, before the support is installed. The software automatically calculates all elevations (excavations and support installation levels) of these defined depths and generates all intermediate construction stages.

• Define Surcharge

Figure: Support Elevations in DeepEX Wizard.

In this dialog we define the surcharge type and properties, as well as the surcharge modeling options. In this case we will use a 25 KN strip surcharge, developed for 15m, starting 0.5m behind the left wall. After the model is automatically generated by the software wizard, we can access the stages in the model area and add any required additional loads graphically, using the Draw Loads options in the General tab of DeepEX.

• Define structural codes:

Figure: Structural Codes in DeepEX Wizard.

In this dialog, we can define the structural and geotechnical design codes that we wish to assign to this model. In this case, we will use Eurocode 2 and Eurocode 3 specifications for concrete and steel design.

The software automatically creates all project construction stages, according to our selections in the Model Wizard. The following Figures present the models in Stages 1 and 3 respectively:

Figure: Generated Model – Stage 1.

Figure: Generated Model – Stage 3.

### C. Braced Excavation with Rakers Analysis and Results

Since the model is ready, we can choose to calculate the design section, pressing on the button .

After the analysis is succeeded, the Summary table appears. The table below includes some critical checks and values for each construction stage. The following figures present some graphical results from the results tab of DeepEX.

Table: DeepEX critical results/stage

Figure: Wall moment and shear diagrams, Stage 3.

Figure: Wall deflections and soil pressures diagrams, Stage 3.

Figure: Wall embedment safety factors, Stage 3.

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